LARA LANGUAGE

 

 

ALPHABET

 

The Lara alphabet consists of 27 Latin letters. Transcription and pronunciation are as follows:

 

               Xsampa     Example

a =               /a:/      (like in “car”)                             

b =                      /b/      (“ “ “band”)                                  

č (or ch) =   /tS/     (“ “ “challenge”)                

k =             /k/      (“ “ “cold”)                           

d =            /d/       (“ “ “dark”)                           

e =           /e2/      (“ “ “elevation”)

è =          /E/               (“ “ “red”)              

f =             /f/        (“ “ “figure”)                                  

j =            /Z/              french g (“ “ “garage”)                     

g =            /g/       (“ “ “goal”)                           

h =            /h/       aspirate h (“ “ “hockey”)                        

i =             /i:/       (“ “ “people” or even”)                 

l =              /l/       (“ “ “language”)                            

m =           /m/      (“ “ “mother”)                                

n =            /n/       (“ “ “never”)

o =           /o7/      (“ “ “because”, but it’s a short “o”)

ò =           /O/       (“ “ “off”)

p =            /p/       (“ “ “pen”)

q =           /kw/      (“ “ “quality”)

r =             /r\/       (it’s pronunciation is in the Latin way)

s =            /s/        (“ “ “sand”)

š (or sh) =  /S/        (“ “ “shower”)

t =             /t/         (“ “ “taste”)

u =           /u:/        (“ “ “foot”)

v =           /v/         (“ “ “villa”)

x =          /ks/        (“ “ “excuse”)

y =            /j/         (“ “ “yellow”)

w =          /w/        (“ “ “wide”)

z =           /z/         (“ “ “zero”)

 

“Y” + “i” (yi) is pronounced like “yə” when it follows a consonant (the vowel ə is a “schwa”, and its pronunciation is the same as in president or above; eg.: bilyi (recent) = pronunc. beelyə; whereas eyi (inattentive) = pronunc. éyee.

 

ACCENT

 

The accent is always on the penultimate syllable, and it can be on “u” or “i” but never on “y” or “w” (short vowels).

 

 

WORDS

 

Words are always easy and short; in fact most of them are composed by only 2 syllables.

 

NOUN

 

Nouns always end with –a.

Proper names can be translated into Lara keeping in mind that must always end in -us for masculine, -on for the female gender and -an for “neutral” names such as city names, or places. Example: Mary = Maryon; Paul = Pawlos; Rome = Roman.

 

PLURAL

 

Nouns always end with –u; eg: mega = house, becomes megu = houses.

 

The “SURROUNDING”

 

The “surrounding” of nouns is constituted by the other elements of the language: adjectives, adverbs. Words that are part of the “surrounding” (adjectives, adverbs and every word that is not a noun neither a verb) have the same root of the noun, but always end with –i.

The adjective always precedes the noun (eg.: mami mega = a big house), and always remains singular when noun is plural (eg.: mami megu = big houses).

 

 

ARTICLE and  “FEMININE”

 

The article doesn’t exist in the Lara language.

When specification of the feminine gender is required, you only need to place va- before the word; eg: hada = servant becomes va-hada = (she) servant.

 

AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE

 

In order to have the diminutive, you add –la at the end of the noun (eg: kira = hand becomes kirala = little hand; pay attention to the accent, you read kiràla), whereas you add –li at the end of the adjective (eg: grumi = old (man) becomes grumili = little old (man); read: grumìli).

You have the augmentative adding –ma to the noun and –mi to the adjective.

 

CONSTRUCTABLE WORDS

 

In conclusion to the WORDS chapter, you will notice that sometimes you can’t find some adjectives or verbs in the dictionary. Very often it’s really easy to obtain them simply adding the correct suffix to the noun root.

Also many constructable words are absent, like “profession” words and “provenance” or “destination” words. The former are intended to be the one who (and in Lara is ka) does or makes the thing/action defined by any root. An example is: to obtain the word frame-maker (not present in the dictionary) you only need to add ka (=the one who..) to the correspondent noun or verb (in this case: liba = frame) and obtain libaka = frame-maker.

The provenance/destination words instead define the physical place or the abstract concept where the action takes place or where people, objects are collected or live, and are defined by the root. You obtain that kind of word adding -pa (from upa = place) at the end of the word in question (eg.: matra = study, becomes matrapa = university). When you want to create a new provenance/destination word, you always have to pay attention that the word isn’t yet in the dictionary or if the new one could be confused with other words with a different meaning.

 

***

 

DIRECTIONS

 

Directions (so-called separate) correspond basically to our prepositions (also adverbial ones). They are easy to identify and memorize since always end with -o and are all monosyllable. The principal directions are 16:

 

 

o* = of                                  ko = up, on, over               go** = as, like, how        šo = because of, owing to

                          

to = to, toward    lo = along                 fo = in front (of)       do = in the middle/center of,

 

no = from (since)         vo = for                     bo = behind   čo = according to/depending on

 

ro = in                          yo = between, among     smo = across, through (space)

 

so*** = with                  po = down, under, beneath           zo = by means of, through

 

 

The position of the directions generally follows and is bound to the term in order to obtain a better cadence of the sentence.

Eg.: the boats on the sea translates as sufu talako (tala = sea + ko = on, above) = boats sea–on, above; and, an eg. in the plural: the courtyards behind the houses translates as svaru megubo (megu + bo).

When the noun is accompanied by an adjective, the direction is linked only to the noun; eg: sufu gili (= green) talako (the boats on the green sea). As already described in the paragraph of the “Sorrounding”, if the noun is in the plural, the accompanying adjective remains in the singular, so if a direction is linked to this noun the translation, in some examples, will be the following: pipu sumi felulo (boys along the joyful streets), hama lui ravù (the discovery of new worlds).

 

*o is always replaced with a simple accent on the last syllable of the word in case of words with at least 2 syllables both the singular and the plural; eg: the phrase the walls of the house that would become tonku megao (mega + o) after bounding the suffix, simply becomes tonku megà. Plural: the walls of the houses will be translated with tonku megù.

In the case of a monosyllable word: in the spoken language the accent can be detected only from the context of the sentence, since it is not "perceptible" when the word is isolated; eg: the pronunciation of knà (of the bread) does not differ from the pronunciation of kna (bread); in the context of a sentence, however, paying attention to use the correct accent, the difference is evident; eg: sa bra knà (this is the crumb of the bread) is pronounced "sabraknà", while the phrase sa bra kna (this is crumb bread .. non-sense phrase!) should be pronounced "sàbrakna". Other examples: the taste of food is translated with yuma krà (pronounced: “yumakrà” and not “yùmakra” = yuma kra, which would translate with the taste is food). The same example in the plural: the taste of foods translates as yuma krù.

 

** the direction go when it means "how" is not linked to the term; eg .: go yu nyer sni fela? (how - in what way - will you find the right path?).

 

***the opposite, “without”, becomes miso. In the context of a sentence, however, the construction follows the rule as above, bounding the direction at the end of the word, eg.: a voice without a soul becomes qa mi hiaso (voice ; not ; soul + with).

 

 
PERSONS

BELONGING

DONATION

OBJECT

a (n)  I

  my

mavo for me

ma me

ya  you

  your

navo  for you

na you

la  he

  his

davo  for him

da him

va  she

  her

vavo  for her

va her

ga  oneself

of o.s.   (own)

gavo  for o.s.

ga oneself

o (n)  we

  our

  muvo  for us

   mu us

yo  you

  your

nuvo  for you

nu you

lo  they

   their

duvo  for them

du them

vo they (f.)

      their (f.)

vuvo  “(f.)

vu them (f.)

PERSONS

 

The directions bind to the personal pronouns in the same way of nouns, adjectives or verbs, as seen in the previous chapter. For your convenience we provide a table that lists the "cases" for the individual pronouns bound to the directions: of belonging (which corresponds to the genitive case), donation (dative case) and object (accusative case):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The belonging direction follows the term to which it refers; eg.: a ne mega (I see your house), pronunciation: “anémeganà”.

Examples of binding with other directions: to, toward you = nato (na= you + to= to, toward; other eg.: duzo (by means of them), vano (from her), muyo (between us), dafo (in front of him), našo (owing to, because of you), dudo (in their midst), ecc.

 

In complex sentences in which a word is governed by a direction and also tied to a person declined in the direction of belonging, just remember that the person declined in the direction of belonging follows the word.

Eg: the son of your neighbor = ipa nenkà , the color of their eyes = rula neù ; he with the car of his wife = la plataso vilvà gà; the hat on my head = poka kopako mà.

 

 

 

“KA”, “KI”, “KIA”, “TA” and “SA”

 

Ka means “who, the one who/that..”, as a noun or conjunction, referring to a person/people.

Eg.: ka le nai… = who goes far away…; a mi nen ka beten vata = I didn’t see who/the one who opened the window.

 

Ki is an adjective and means “which(?), what(?); (eg: ya lipen ki pida? = which/what number did you choose?) referring to things, animals, places, etc.; the conjunction (our “that”), referring to things, animals, places, is mostly omitted, as in english, but if it is necessary to transcribe it, TA (that) or SA (this) or LA/VA (he/she) must be used depending on the context. Eg. where the conjunction is omitted: la klapen koka ya bari kade = he took the cup (that / the one that) you always use. Eg. Where the conjunction is transcribed: a ge friva ta tonkako (I want the painting that is on the wall); if conjunction were omitted, the phrase a ge friva tonkako would translate as I want the picture on the wall, an ambiguous phrase that in Lara can also translate as I want the picture to be on the wall (see later the chapter on the verb “to BE”).

 

Kia means “what/the thing (that)” (subst.).

Eg.: ya tie pe kia? = what do you think to do?

 As for the persons, ka, ta, sa, la/va and kia have to be bound to the preposition; eg.: kato (to/toward the one who.., to whom..), saso (with this or which…with.), kiaku (on what, what…on).

   When ka and ta, sa, la/va are conjunctions and are in the same direction of the bound word then both terms are not expressed, as in english. On the contrary, when they’re not in the same direction or their direction is not the object one, then the terms ka, ta, sa, la/va are expressed. Eg.: choka puna kuzi (the dog whose nose is cold), or neu iyù kavo yu same (the eyes of the children (which) you live for), etc.

  The terms “this” (sa) and “that” (ta) have to be translated differently depending on their adjective or substantive meaning. You use sa and ta in case of substantive (-a of the nouns) whereas si and ti in case of adjective (-i of the “Surrounding”). In case of adjective they are postponed to the term, unlike all the other adjectives and similarly, instead, to the personal pronouns!

Eg.: A klape glepa si = I take this (adj.) glass; a klape sa = I take this (subst.); or: ta u ne = what/that (thing) (subst.) we see.

When they’re substantive you bind them to the preposition, as well as for all the nouns; eg.: taso (with that), savo (for this).

In case they are in the form of the adjective, the construction will be exactly as seen above for complex sentences, pointing out that the adjective is always singular when linked to a plural noun, eg.: goi fiva krà si = good (lit. "well") smell of this food; sa meki dyu wai svoluso ti = these are strange people with those long cloaks.

 

 
COMPARISONS

 

Comparisons are divided into 2 groups: less/more and least/most.

 

LESS/MORE

The construction is like in English and many other languages: ui (less) and mui (more) preceding an adjective. The term that is compared follows the direction go (as, like); eg.: va ui lali nivago (she is less beautiful than her sister) or lu mui huni tovugo gà (they’re taller than their friends).

 

LEAST/MOST

They’re divided into absolute and relative.

The “least” absolute corresponds to the absolute superlative in a negative form, eg.: if you say a very/extremely clever man, in the negative form it will be an extremely not clever man. In the Lara language you need to add lo-[1] to the adjective obtaining: lo + eki (clever) pea (man) = loeki pea –again remembering that usually the adjective precedes the noun, except for the terms si and ti.-

The “most” absolute corresponds to the absolute superlative in a positive form. The example you’ve seen above will be: a very/extremely clever man. Now you add ba-[2], and the translation is: ba + eki pea = baeki pea.

When they’re used as adjectives, the “most” absolute for bai (much/many) and loi (few) is respectively byai and lyoi; eg.: a great many(or very few) years is translated as byai (or lyoi)  milas.

The suffixes lo- and ba- are also used for verbs (as you’ll see in the Verbs chapter).

 

The “least” and the “most” relative correspond to the relative superlative.

In order to construct them, the suffix um or us is added to the adjective, respectively to say the most or the least. The term that is compared follows the direction ro (in) when it’s singular or yo (between, among) when it’s plural; eg: um huni pea ravaro (the tallest man in the world) or la mu huni muyo (he is the tallest of us); whereas, on the contrary, the least brave man in the world becomes us masdi pea ravaro. To say the most or greatest or maximum as a substantive you translate with bawi, whereas to say the least or minimum or slightest as a substantive you translate with bibi.

 

 

 

NUMBERS

 

Numbers from 0 to 9 are named as follows:

 

0 - min   5 - li

1 - pi      6 - zi

2 - ji       7 - dji

3 - di      8 - yi

4 - chi    9 - xi

 

In order to obtain the name of numbers over 9 (except for numbers containing the 0, see below) you only have to place side by side the names of every single number and add an accent and -n. Let’s see some examples: ji (2) + chi (4) + -n= jichìn (24) or di (3) + zi (6) + xi (9) + -n = dizixìn (369) or jichichidìn = (2443).

A different rule exists for num. 0. When the 0 is only one time inside the number, it has to be expressed as unique: eg. di (3) + yi (8) + mi- (0) + n = diyimìn (380). Whereas if there are more than one 0 inside the number, then you express the number of times it’s present inside (using the root word of the number) + the suffix -un; eg.: pi (1) + j(i) (2) = intended as number of times you find the 0 inside the number) + -un = pijun (100 , i.e.: 1 + 2 times zero) or pi (1) + d(i) (3) + -un = pidun (1000, i.e. 1 + 3 times zero) and so on. The suffix –in and –un within the number, and not at the end of it, become respectively –i- and -u-. Eg.: pidulìn is 10005 or zimijìn is 602.

When you find a Lara word composed by only 1 number followed by -un the translation is with that number + 1 zero; eg.: p(i) (1) + -un = pun (10, i.e.: 1 + 1 zero) or ch(i) (4) + -un = chun (40, i.e.: 4 + 1 zero) and so on.

Recapitulation examples: diliyìn (358), djun (70), zijun (600), lijupìn (5001) and chimixixidun (4.099.000)!

For the ordinal numeral adjectives, the suffix to bind to the number is –ni (note it ends in –i like all the adjectives). So, from 1 to 9 they are:

                      

first – pini                sixth - zini

second – jini   seventh - djini

third – dini               eighth - yini

fourth – chini  ninth - xini

fifth – lini

 

For numbers over 9 you only add -ni to the entire number.

Examples: fifteenth (15th) = pilin-ni (15ni); hundredthirtieth (130th) = pidiminni (130ni); fortieth(40th)= chunni (40ni); thousandth (1000th) = pidunni (1000ni).

 

 

TIME

 

The hour is asa in the modern Lara language, but the original old meaning of this term was about 4 hours of a day. So let’s see some examples about determination of time:

What time is it? In Lara is: Ki asa?

To say it’s X hour you translate with X asa (eg.: it’s three o’clock = di asa), completely different from X asu = it’s X hours that… (eg.: it’s two hours that I’m waiting = ji asu a vipe).

The parts of an hour are expressed as follows:

It’s a quarter past 4= 4 asa mui pi chiu (literally: it’s 4 hour plus 1 of 4); it’s half past 5 = 5 asa mui ryi (liter.: it’s 5 hour plus half).

At X = Ami X asa (liter.: When X hour). Eg.: At three quarters past 6 = Ami 6 asa mui di chì. And obviusly At what time? Becomes Ami ki asa?

To insert the minutes here is an example:

At 25 (minutes) past 10 = Ami 10 asa mui jilìn; you don’t need to express the word nadu (= minutes).

 

 

INTERJECTIONS

 

   The most frequent interjection in Lara is Ah! (remember that h is aspirated) and the most direct translation is Oh!. But this interjection is also used as an exclamatory or interrogative adjective  that could be what...! or how...! etc., eg.: ah lali! (how beautiful!) or ah mami! (how big!) or ah meki ba! (what a strange thing!), etc.

 

 

 

VERB

 

The present absolute, corresponding to the infinitive, always ends with –e.

As I said before in the Comparisons chapter, also for the verbs you can use lo- and ba- and they are always equivalent to “least” and “most” absolute; eg.: va ba + lube (to love) vyuvu =  va balube vyuvu (she loves very much flowers) or ya lo + lute (to know) kea = ya lolute kea (you know very few about history).

When bai and loi are used as adjectives (see Comparisons) in that case you translate with byai and lyoi; the same eg.: va lube byai vyuvu (she loves a great deal of flowers).

 

The verb has conjugations and cases, that in Lara are called directions of person and tense.

The first one is very easy since you only need to place the person before the verb following the absolute form (present or in other tenses); eg.: a kae (I bring), or lu kae (they bring).

 

 

TENSE DIRECTIONS

 

There are three tenses for every single form of the verb: active, passive and reflexive.

 

 

 

ACTIVE verb

 

Tenses are the same for the 3 forms of the verb. For the active form they are constructed as follows:

1) present absolute: root + -e (as you saw above).

2) past                  : root + -e + -n.

3) future               : root + -e + -r.

As you saw in the previous eg., you only need to place the person before the verb following the absolute form (present, past, etc.) in order to obtain the person direction together with the tense direction; eg.: u panen (we dreamt), or la aler (he will come), etc.

 

PASSIVE verb

 

For the passive form it is sufficient to put the suffix e- before the active verb when it begins with a consonant, or en- when it begins with a vowel; the tenses are then constructed in the same way as the active form.

As usual you place the person before the verb and obtain the person direction; eg.: va elenen (she was searched); lu ekatome forano (they are respected by the people); smata ti enenter misai (that package will be sent elsewhere)

 

 

 

REFLEXIVE verb

 

In Lara it is constructed by placing the person ga (= oneself) after the verb, but this is used only in case of ambiguous meaning! In fact, the simple active or passive form is normally used (like in english). Eg.: You undress in front of everyone! = Ya stam’emafo!; or They woke up after me = Lu haken kai ma; or he dresses = la store.

Use ga when you need to specify the reflexive condition; Eg.: y’adyer ga! (you will loose yourself!)

 

CondITIONAL

 

It has only the present tense and is constructed by adding -ir to the root for the active form and the suffix –ur to the root for the passive form. Eg.: ya pir (you would do) or la ekamir ai... (he would be warned if...). For the past you substantially do the same work as in English by using the past tense; the previous eg. becomes: la ekamen ai... (he was warned if...). Another more complete eg.: un edoryen ai yu mi zai hegen (we were killed if you were not immediately arrived).

 

 

IMPERATIVE

 

It is constructed with a simple accent on the last syllable of the present of the active or passive form. Eg.: lwalè! (come back!). When no person precedes the verb, it is intended that the subject is you, whereas you have to express the person in all the other cases. Eg.: lapè (hear!), u lapè (let’s hear!), lu elapè (they are to be heard!).

 

 

 

the NOUN-VERB

 

It corresponds to the participle and similarly has a present tense and a past tense. The present one doesn’t exist in Lara, it means that you don’t need to make any particular construction. An eg.: the participant is ka sime (the one that participates) and so the participants= ku sime.

The past one is constructed by adding –in (similar to -en of the past tense) to the root*, in cases where the past participle essentially expresses an adjective referring to the past. Eg.: fui tuyin pea (a man now defeated); kripin hikka (ground pepper). Probably from these examples is already clear that the past participle follows the construction of the adjectives in the syntax, as is clear in the following additional examples: u nen tedin pea ti (we saw that distressed man).

In the more complex construction, when the past participle has the meaning of a verb and not an adjective, the translation occurs as for the present participle, using the conjunction ka or ta/sa/la/va; on the basis of the example above: u nen pea ti zaven malano (we saw that man afraid of (by) the night; literally: ... that man who was afraid of (by) the night) and not u nen pea ti zavin malano because it would read = we saw that man from the frightened night).

 

 

 

 

the ACCOMPANYING verb

 

It’s similar to the gerund, but involves a wider concept. Its simple gerund meaning is determined by the construction of so (with) followed by the active present absolute; eg.: grumi la felen bleso (the (he) old man walked while talking; literally while talking is with talking). When so precedes a verb in a different tense direction then its meaning becomes more complex.

The preposition so + verb, in every tense direction, makes an absolute phrase.

 

1) Accompanying verb. pasT (GERUND)

It’s constructed by so followed by the verb in past absolute tense. Eg.: a lenso (len + so) mega (literally.: I, with went (been gone) home) that you can translate with: after I went (had gone) home or since I went home or for the fact I went home or as I went home.

 

2) Accompanying verb. FUTURE (GERUND)

When so is followed by the verb in future absolute tense, you will have: a lerso mega (liter.: I, with will go home) = since I will go home or for the fact I will go home or as I will go home.

 

Now you understand that also using so followed by the verb in present absolute tense (i.e.: present gerund) you can have different translations: a leso mega = me, going home or since I go home or as I go home or for the fact I go home, etc.

 

RENEWAL verb

 

This kind of verb implies a repetition of the action. In English most of the times it is expressed  by the suffix re- or by the adverb again (to do again, to readmit, to reconstruct). Also in Lara the verb has simply a suffix that is lu-[3]. If you want to construct a renewal verb that is not present in the Lara dictionary, you need to pay attention that adding lu- to the verb, this should have no other meaning. Examples of renewal verbs: ne (to see) becomes lune (to see again) or talle (to build) becomes lutalle (to rebuild).

 

 

POSSIBILITY DIRECTION

 

This direction corresponds to an adjective derived from the verb. In English you have it by adding –able (i.e.: that is possible; eg.: readable = that is possible to read) to the root of the verb. In Lara you add the suffix -asi to the root of the verb: eg.: nete (to understand) becomes net- + asi  = netasi (understandable).

When the verb is a monosyllable you add -asi to the entire verb and not to the root; eg.: kre (to eat) becomes kre + asi = kreasi (eatable).

This direction follows the rules as for all adjectives.

Some verbs in this direction have contracted forms that you can find in the Lara dictionary; eg.: mitosi (unbelievable) derives from mi (no, not) + to- (root of toe = to believe) + asi = mitoasi, where oa is contracted into o. Thus, when you want to create a possibility direction of any verb, give a look to the dictionary in order to see if there’s not already a contracted form for that verb.

 

Note: Verbs that are intransitive, often can be used as transitive in Lara, on condition that the meaning of the sentence doesn’t result misunderstandable. Eg.: a ler tala = I will go to the sea (without preposition in Lara).

 

 

The verb TO BE

 

The auxiliary verb me (to be) is normally omitted in the sentence. You also find this characteristic in other natural languages, like Russian. The subject (noun or other) or the person preceding the verb, in the direction of person, indicates the verb to be.

Eg.: choka tova peà (the dog is the friend of man) or veu ti dili (that women are sincere). Notice how the adjective stays singular when the substantive is plural, or u milmi (we are tired) where the person indicates the verb to be. By that, you’ll notice that just changing the position of the adjective you can have sentences with completely different meanings, eg.: mami frua (a big garden) and frua mami (the garden is big).

You can never omit the verb to be when the sentence results unclear and in case of 3 kind of the following Constructions, the present, past and future one. Let’s see them.

 

 Present. The verb me describes a continuative action when it precedes another verb in the present absolute; eg.: a me le (I am going) or la me pe (he is doing); if you change the tense direction of me, eg.: a men le (I was going) or vasa ti la mer pe (that day he will be doing).

 

Past. When it precedes another verb that is in the past absolute, then the verb me describes a concluded action; eg.: ya men len (you was gone) or u men pen (we had done). Notice how you always use me also when it’s the verb to have in English. Eg.: lu men eninyen (they were be found). Also in this case the verb me can be in other tense directions depending on the action occurring in the present, past or future tense.

 

Future. Finally, the verb me describes a future potential action when it precedes another verb that is in the future absolute; eg.: ya me planer (you are going to sleep) or a me per (I’m going to do). If you change the tense direction of me, eg.: ya men paner (you were going to dream) and so on.

 

Accompanying verb with “TO BE

 

If you wish to construct the accompanying verb (gerund) with the verb to be (me), since the verb to be in Lara is omitted, simply use the direction so in an isolated form, not bound to any verb. Eg: ya so goni matreda (since you are a good student, for you are ..., as you are ...); a so mui dri, ya mi ma'tuye! (since we are stronger, you can not win!). On the contrary, for the past or the future the verb to be (me) has to be transcribed, but only if strictly necessary for the proper meaning of the phrase. Eg.: un ake šule lu merso domma (we have to obey since they will be the masters), however, another example.: imala si ya so kemba mà ... (since you will be my guest tonight ...), in this case it is clear that the verb to be omitted is in the future tense, because it is clear from the entire sentence.

 

“sorrounding” and “noun-verb” with “to be

 

Examples of complex constructions with the verb to be and adjectives or past participles that accompany nouns: pea ti čokago egolken entano (that man is like a dog beaten by fate; literally: That man is like a dog that has been [was] beaten by fate) and not pea ti čokago golkin entano because you would read = the man is like a dog from/by the beaten fate (!!!)). From "The Little Prince": a mui jei sufdago epuren malamado govako kai šoya = I was more isolated than a sailor [who was] abandoned in the middle of the ocean on a raft after a shipwreck.

 

 

 

The use of “PE” (to do)

 

In Lara there’s a particular construction that is used when the verb is accompanied by the verb pe (to do, to make). Let’s have an example: to make change or to make worry. In this case, in Lara, the verb pe is added, as it would be a suffix, to the accompanied verb; eg.: trele (to work) + pe = trele + pe = trelepe (to make work). In case of monosyllable accompanied verb you add -pye instead of -pe; eg.: ble (to speak) + pye = blepye (to make speak).

Eg.: blaka si yelepe ma (this story makes me laugh).

 

 

 

 

OBJECTIVE CLAUSE

 

It corresponds to the so called Indirect speech of latin. In Lara you only need to let the indirect clause follow the main clause. Thus it’s fundamental to never omit the subject of the subordinate clause!

Eg.: ma ge ya le (I want you to go) or lu ken va lali (they said she was beautiful).

 

 

NEGATIVE CLAUSE

 

In Lara the word mi means no or not. You can also use it to construct words corresponding to the negative form of other ones, in English generally beginning with in-, un- or dis- (intolerant, discontinuity, unusual). Eg., in Lara: mitosi (incredible) or milumi (ignorant; by mi + lumi = not + learned, wise) or milai (dry; by mi + lai = not + wet) or miklumi (anemic; by mi + kluma = no + blood).

Negative clauses are constructed in an English-like way. Eg.: a de mia (I have nothing); l’aler vi (he will never come) or lu len mi upa (they went in no place = literally: they went no place).

 

 

 

PREPOSITION BETWEEN TWO VERBS

 

In Lara you never need to put a preposition between two verbs. Eg.: la toe lume (he thinks to know), lu ke le (they say to go), a le pe (I go to do), alè ble daso (come to speak with him), etc.

 

 

IMPERSONAL FORM

 

This is the last rule of the Lara language: the impersonal form of verbs. Clauses like: it rains, one needs, it is thought, etc. are impersonal and in Lara constructed with the passive absolute. The former expressions are translated with: edree, enake, etie!.

 

 

 

 

 

TO SUMMARIZE…

 

…TERMS AND SUFFIX !

 

A

-a = singular noun;= singular belonging direction of a noun; -an = proper name of a city, place

 

E

-e = present absolute tense of a verb (infinitive); -er = future tense of verb; -en = past tense of verb;= imperative of verb

 

I

-i = adjective or adverb; -ìn = number; -in = past participle, past tens of a noun-verb; -ir = conditional of verb

 

O

-o = direction (or preposition) bound or not bound to a noun, adjective, verb, etc.; -on = female proper name

 

U

-u = plural noun;= plural belonging direction of a noun; -un = number; -us = male proper name

 

 

Idioms and particular constructions

 

   As for other languages, also in Lara there are idioms or idiomatic phrases. It’s not fundamental to know them but their correct use means to be a real “Larian”!

   The main examples are the following:

 

 

   (made) of… = …-pin; eg: brick wall= sduga-pin tonka, or you can also use an adjective form: sdugi tonka, if the meaning is not altered.

 

   (…) years, months ago = (…) melin (passed) milo, valo (years, months); once upon a time= melin pa (time passed)

 

   A dish of... = taya so... (a dish with…)

 

  Bad weather = skuma

 

  Between one thing and another = ba yo ba; and in the same way, in another eg.: between cat and dog = mina yo choka

 

  Expressions like at a run, etc. = are translated with so (with) + …; the former eg. become: peleso (with running)

 

  From time to time = la i la (lett.: time and time)

 

  Good weather = goi kuma

 

   in the evening.., by day.., at night.., or in the morning.., etc.= imala.., ivasa.. These are translated without prepositions.

  

   more and more = mui mui

 

   On behalf of... = agapo o... (under name of…)

 

   On foot = takuzo (= by feet)

 

   On one hand…on the other hand or In part…in part…= sta…sta

 

   secretly = omi

 

   similar to.. = vami go..

 

   so.. that.. = …eši…. Eg.: he is so big that he comes not through the door = la mami eši mi ate gema.

 

   The same way= semi

 

   To draw lots = ene enta (en’enta) (to try the luck)

 

  To fill with... = tue so...; and, the same way: made of...;  to dress with...; etc. = ta epen so...; store so...

 

   To keep busy = ve pe (to give to do)

 

   to make a decision = pe bata

 

   together with… sui… See also the Note at the end of the VERB chapter



[1] It derives from loi = few.

[2] It derives from bai = much.

[3] The suffix lu- derives from the surrounding lui that means new, newly.